FLIGHT SAFETY DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION         Development of a flight safety documents system is a complete process. Changes to each document comprising the system may affect the entire system. Guidelines applicable to the development of operational documents have been produced by DGCA based on the recommendations of ICAO, current best industry practices and analysis of previous accident with emphasis on high degree of operational relevanc       Air operators who have yet to establish a flight safety documents system should utilize the information provided in CAR in establishing such a system.  DGCA inspectors will conduct a review of the flight safety documents system to ensure that it is effective in providing vital safety information to flight crew in a timely manner.             Guidelines applicable to operational documents’ development tend to focus on a single aspect of documents design, for example, formatting and typography. Guidelines rarely cover the entire process of operational documents development. 

 It is important for operational documents to be consistent with each other, and 

consistent with regulations, manufacturer requirements and Human Factors principles. It is also necessary to ensure consistency across departments as well as consistency in application. Hence the emphasis should be placed on an integrated approach, based on the notion of the operational documents as a complete system.
ORGANIZATION
          A flight safety documents system should be organized according to criteria which ensure easy access to information required for flight and ground operations contained in the various operational documents comprising the system and which facilitate management of the distribution and revision of operational documents.
 Information contained in a flight safety documents system should be grouped
according to the importance and use of the information, as follows:
(i) Time critical information, e.g., information that can jeopardize the safety of the operation if not immediately available;
(ii) Time sensitive information, e.g., information that can affect the level of safety or delay the operation if not available in a short time period;
(iii) Frequently used information;
(iv) Reference information, e.g., information that is required for the operation but does not fall under (2) or (3) above; and
(v) Information that can be grouped based on the phase of operation in which it is used.
c. Time critical information should be placed early and prominently in the flight
safety documents system.
d. Time critical information, time sensitive information, and frequently used information should be placed in cards and quick-reference guides.
e. The flight safety documents system should be validated before deployment, under realistic conditions. Validation should involve the critical aspects of the information use, in order to verify its effectiveness. Interactions among all groups that can occur during operations should also be included in the validation process.
f. A flight safety documents system should maintain consistency in terminology and in the use of standard terms for common items and actions.
g. Operational documents should include a glossary of terms, acronyms and their standard definition, updated on a regular basis to ensure access to the most recent terminology. All significant terms, acronyms and abbreviations included in the flight documents system should be defined.
h. A flight safety documents system should ensure standardization across document types, including writing style, terminology, use of graphics and symbols, and formatting across documents. This includes a consistent location of specific types of information, consistent use of units of measurement and consistent use of codes.
i. A flight safety document system needs to include a verification mechanism to ensure that, whenever a section of a document is amended, all other documents likely to be affected are identified and that consequential amendments are duly coordinated and agreed to by the responsible departments before the amendment is processed.
DEPLOYMENT
Operators should monitor deployment of the flight safety documents system to ensure appropriate and realistic use of the documents, based on the characteristics of the operational environment and in a way which is both operationally relevant and beneficial to operational personnel. This monitoring should include a formal feedback system for obtaining input from operational personnel.

 AMENDMENT Operators should develop an information gathering, review, distribution and revision control system to process information and data obtained from all sources relevant to the type of operation conducted, including, but not limited to, the State of Operator, State of design, State of Registry, manufacturers and equipment vendors. 

Operators should develop an information gathering, review and distribution system to process information resulting from changes that originate within the operator, including:
a) Changes resulting from the installation of new equipment;
b) Changes in response to operating experience;
c) Changes in an operator’s policies and procedures;
d) Changes in an operator certificate; and
e) Changes for purposes of maintaining cross fleet standardization.

Note.- Operators should ensure that crew coordination philosophy, policies and procedures are specific to their operation.

  Flight safety documents system should be reviewed:
a) On a regular basis (at least once a year);
b) After major events (mergers, acquisitions, rapid growth, downsizing etc.)
c) After technology changes (introduction of new equipment); and
d) After changes in safety regulations. Operators should develop methods of communicating new information. The specific methods should be responsive to the degree of communication urgency. 

 

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Aircraft Tie-down Removal

CAA issued this Safety Notice is to re-emphasise to pilots the need to fully complete preflight checks, and specifically to ensure that the aircraft is free from tie-down constraints before being manoeuvred.
Recent reports submitted through the Mandatory Occurrence Reporting Scheme concern aircraft being taxied, and in one case taking off, with tie-down restraints still attached. In all cases these involved rope attachments to bulky objects such as weighted tyres and concrete blocks. All of the aircraft involved were light single-engine piston, low-wing types where the wing tie-down attachment points were hidden from the cockpit. In addition to the hazard to normal controlled flight, some of the reports featured damage to the wing-flaps and superficial damage to the runway surface. It seems to have been almost impossible to detect from the control responses and power settings required to taxi that there was anything untoward, despite the same bulky objects being difficult to move by hand when unattached.

Effective Precautions

Whilst these type of tie-down incidents do occur (as do similar incidents involving the nose-gear tow-bar), they are all easily preventable and have an established procedure in the pre-flight inspection to deal with them. It is essential to ensure that the pre-flight inspection is carried out thoroughly each time rather than being curtailed due to time pressures, distraction or a reluctance to get clothes or hands dirty. In order to make an effective check the pilot must put himself/herself in a position where the item being checked can be positively verified including, in these situations, getting under the wing to check the lower surfaces, fuselage, undercarriage and tie-down points. It is clearly important to inspect directly the tie-down attachment point to see that it is clear, rather than rely on the rope, cable or anchor being clearly visible. 

However, since experience indicates that the way pre-flight checks are carried out does not always identify a tie-down still in place, owners and pilots may wish to consider additional measures. These measures include, but are not limited to:

• Regular use of a written checklist is the best way to ensure that items are not forgotten. If the checks have become so familiar that the pilot feels no need to use the list normally, the pilot should make an effort to use the list regularly to refresh his/her memory of the detail of the items. 

• Attempting to ensure that the aircraft cannot move with a tie-down attached. A substantial chock in front of a wheel which is also attached to the anchoring object may achieve this. 

• Attaching the aircraft to a ground anchor rather than a moveable object. While aircraft have been known to break the rope while taxiing forward, a rope-end is less likely to cause serious damage than a concrete block.  

• Having more than one ‘indicator’ that an item is satisfactory/not satisfactory, e.g. tags, markers, cones, etc. showing prominently when a tie-down is not attached. An ideal system of this type would have the tags/markers visible from the cockpit for final verification. If a mobile anchoring object is used, it is suggested that these, once unattached, are moved to an obvious place where they are not in the way but can be seen from the cockpit. 

• Encouraging all persons on the aerodrome to take an interest in aircraft taxiing and to raise the alert if something untoward is noticed. If available, communicate the nature of the problem via the aerodrome ATS or the notified frequency for the aerodrome if the incident happens outside of normal operating hours.  

• Dress sensibly during winter months so that you can comfortably carry out pre-flight checks (including removing all ice) without feeling the need to curtail them due to cold and inclement weather or saturated ground. If you hire an aircraft, don’t only rely on the daily ‘A’ check or the previous pilot having carried out a full pre-flight inspection.

 

 

FAA To Launch Comprehensive Review Of Boeing 787

CBS Dallas / Fort Worth

WASHINGTON (AP) – Federal regulators say they are ordering a comprehensive review of the critical systems of Boeing’s 787s, the aircraft maker’s newest and most technologically advanced plane, after a fire and a fuel leak earlier this week.

The Federal Aviation Administration says the review will include the design, manufacture and assembly of the aircraft. Officials plan to detail the review at a news conference Friday morning.

The 787, which Boeing calls the “Dreamliner,” relies more than any other modern airliner on electrical signals to help power nearly everything the plane does. It’s also the first Boeing plane to use rechargeable lithium ion batteries and to be made with lightweight composite materials.

A fire ignited Monday in the battery pack of an auxiliary power unit of a Japan Airlines 787 empty of passengers.

(© Copyright 2013 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten…

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